2021 Clinical Update in Liver Transplantation

Cale A. Kassel, Trevor J. Wilke, Bradley A. Fremming, Brittany A. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


In 2021, the United States performed 9,236 liver transplantations, an increase of 3.7% from 2020. As the specialty of transplant anesthesiologist continues to grow, so does the body of evidence-based research to improve patient care. New technology in organ preservation offers the possibility of preserving marginal organs for transplant or improving the graft for transplantation. The sequalae of end-stage liver disease have wide-ranging consequences that affect neurologic outcomes of patients both during and after transplantation that anesthesiologists should monitor. Obesity presents several challenges for anesthesiologists. As an increasing number of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are listed for transplant, managing their multiple comorbidities can be challenging. Finally, the rebalanced hemostasis of end-stage liver disease can cause both bleeding and thrombus. Often, bleeding risks predominate as a concern, but anesthesiologists should be aware of risks of intracardiac thrombus and review therapeutic options for prevention and treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4183-4191
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Anticoagulation
  • Liver Transplanation
  • Machine Perfusion
  • Obesity
  • Seizure
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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