3D printing for soft musculoskeletal tissue engineering

Mohamadmahdi Samandari, Jacob Quint, Ali Tamayol

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Scopus citations


Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) has emerged as a promising approach for generating functional tissues to serve as in vitro models or replace diseased or lost tissues in vivo. To properly recapitulate the highly organized architecture of skeletal muscles, bioprinting has been implemented for biofabrication of three-dimensional complex constructs with clinically relevant size scale. In this book chapter, we review bioprinting strategies implemented for the biofabrication of artificial muscle constructs and discuss their main challenges in the context of SMTE. In addition, we discuss how bioprinting strategies can be improved for the construction of large muscle structures, boost myogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced tissue integration. The bioink formulations offering decent printability with high shape fidelity while supporting muscle progenitors' functionality are further explored. Finally, the future direction of skeletal muscle bioprinting is described and the opportunities and challenges in this route are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMusculoskeletal Tissue Engineering
Number of pages34
ISBN (Electronic)9780128238936
ISBN (Print)9780128242100
StatePublished - Nov 8 2021


  • Bioinks
  • Bioprinting
  • Hydrogels
  • Skeletal muscles
  • Tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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