This care details a patient with primary amenorrhea with an unusual cause. She presented at age 16 with short stature, minimal sexual development and no prior menses. Her history was significant for poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. She had been evaluated previously for growth hormone deficiency, and had received a short course of growth hormone therapy. Of greatest significance was the fact that she had also had a decreased sense of smell since her youth. Although a previous computerized tomography scan had been reported as normal,follow-up magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the absence of olfactory bulbs. Smell testing confirmed the absence of smell and testing of gonadotropin releasing hormone demonstrated an inadequate response. All of there features suggested Kallmann syndrome. This syndrome commonly presents with delayed onset of puberty and decreased or absent sense of smell. There are also many associated features, and the disease is remarkable for its great genotypic and phenotypic variability. Current understanding of its pathogenesis, the commonly associated features of Kallmann syndrome and the impact of diabetes on growth and sexual development are reviewed.
- Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
- Kallmann syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Obstetrics and Gynecology