We previously reported that fish oil in combination with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors exerts enhanced hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice. Here, we sought to determine the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in combination with naproxen (NX), a COX inhibitor, on dyslipidemia and gene expression in adipose tissue (AT) in humans. Obese dyslipidemic patients were randomly assigned to one of these interventions for 12 wk: 1) Standard nutrition counseling (control), 2) ω-3 PUFAs (2 g twice daily), 3) NX (220 mg twice daily), and 4) ω-3 PUFAs (2 g twice daily) + NX (220 mg twice daily). The serum triglycerides showed a trend towards a reduction and a significant reduction (P<0.05) in ω-3 and ω3 + NX-treated subjects, respectively, compared to control. The mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (Vcam1), an inflammatory marker, increased significantly in AT of ω-3 PUFA-treated subjects but not in ω-3 PUFAs+NX-treated group. The plasma level of glycine-conjugated hyodeoxycholic acid, a secondary bile acid with hypolipidemic property, increased significantly in ω-3 PUFAs + NX-treated group. Our data suggest that combining NX with ω-3 PUFAs increases their effectiveness in reducing serum TG and favorably altering AT gene expression and plasma bile acid profile.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism