A conceptual model for understanding effective coalitions involved in health promotion programing

Mary E. Cramer, Jan R. Atwood, Julie A. Stoner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Funding agencies are increasingly focused on community coalitions as effective entities for promoting public health programs. Yet, there has been no conceptual model for understanding how effective coalition infrastructure works to facilitate a learning environment, wherein coalition members and leaders receive ongoing training and technical assistance needed to accomplish their external programing goals. This article presents a conceptual model for measuring the internal effectiveness of coalitions [Internal Coalition Outcome Hierarchy (ICOH)]. The ICOH model served as the basis for development of the evaluation instrument, Internal Coalition Effectiveness, which measures internal coalition effectiveness based on achievement of organizational outcomes at each of the model's seven hierarchical levels. The ICOH conceptual model has broad application for public health nurses who are frequently called on to serve as evaluators for community coalitions engaged in health programing. The model has implications for evaluators to use in teaching coalition members and leaders about their internal strengths and areas for improvement, so that coalitions can develop more effective internal structures and thereby promote long-term sustainability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-73
Number of pages7
JournalPublic Health Nursing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2006


  • Community coalition
  • Conceptual model
  • Evaluation
  • Organization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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