A cooperative study on the standardized total-tract digestible phosphorus requirement of twenty-kilogram pigs

O. Adeola, M. J. Azain, S. D. Carter, T. D. Crenshaw, M. J. Estienne, B. J. Kerr, M. D. Lindemann, C. V. Maxwell, P. S. Miller, M. C. Shannon, E. Van Heugten

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Abstract

A cooperative study comprising growth performance, bone mineralization, and nutrient balance experiments was conducted at 11 stations to determine the standardized total-tract digestible (STTD) P requirement of 20-kg pigs using broken-line regression analysis. Monocalcium phosphate and limestone were added to a corn-soybean meal-based diet at the expense of cornstarch to establish 6 concentrations of STTD P from 1.54 to 5.15 g/kg in increments of 0.62 g/kg at a constant Ca: total P of 1.52: 1.0. Diets were fed to 936 pigs (average initial BW of 19 kg) in 240 pens for 20 replicate pens of barrows and 20 replicate pens of gilts per diet. As STTD P increased from 1.54 to 5.15 g/kg of the diet for d 0 to 14, 14 to 28, and 0 to 28, the ADG, ADFI, and G: F increased (P < 0.01). Barrows gained and ate more (P < 0.05) than gilts during d 14 to 28 and 0 to 28. There was no interaction between sex and STTD P concentration for any of the growth performance response criteria. There were both linear and quadratic increases (P < 0.05) in mineral density and content of ash, Ca, and P in the femur expressed as a percentage of dry, fat-free metacarpal as dietary STTD P increased. Furthermore, the maximum load of the femur and mineral density and content and maximum load as well as the Ca and P expressed as a percentage of metacarpal ash linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary concentrations of STTD P. There were both linear and quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in apparent digestibility and retention of P with increasing concentrations of STTD P in the diets. Digestibility and retention of Ca linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing dietary concentrations of STTD P. Breakpoints determined from nonlinear broken-line regression analyses revealed estimates of 4.20 ± 0.102, 3.20 ± 0.036, or 3.87 ± 0.090 g/kg for ADG during d 0 to 14, 14 to 28, or 0 to 28, respectively. Corresponding estimates using G: F as the response criterion were 4.34 ± 0.146, 3.38 ± 0.139, or 4.08 ± 0.195 g/kg. When mineralization of the femur was used as criteria of response, estimates of STTD P requirement were 4.28, 4.28, or 4.34, g/kg for mineral density, mineral content, or maximum load, respectively. Using mineralization of the metacarpal as criteria of response, estimates of STTD P requirement ranged from 3.5 to 5.0 g/kg depending on the metacarpal response criteria. The study provided empirical estimates of STTD P requirements of 20- to 40-kg pigs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5743-5753
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume93
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 18 2015

Keywords

  • Phosphorus
  • Pigs
  • Requirement
  • Standardized total-tract digestible

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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    Adeola, O., Azain, M. J., Carter, S. D., Crenshaw, T. D., Estienne, M. J., Kerr, B. J., Lindemann, M. D., Maxwell, C. V., Miller, P. S., Shannon, M. C., & Van Heugten, E. (2015). A cooperative study on the standardized total-tract digestible phosphorus requirement of twenty-kilogram pigs. Journal of animal science, 93(12), 5743-5753. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2015-9509