A Critical Role for the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus in the Regulation of the Volume Reflex in Normal and Various Cardiovascular Disease States

Hong Zheng, Kenichi Katsurada, Shyam Nandi, Yifan Li, Kaushik P. Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose of Review: This review focuses on studies implicating forebrain neural pathways and neuromodulator systems, particularly, the nitric oxide system within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in regulating neurohumoral drive, autonomic pathways, and fluid balance. Recent Findings: Accumulating evidence from animals with experimental models of hypertension and heart failure as well as humans with hypertension suggests that alterations in central neural pathways, particularly, within the PVN neuromodulated by neuronal nitric oxide, are involved in regulating sympathetic outflow particularly to the kidney resulting in alterations in fluid balance commonly observed in hypertension and heart failure states. Summary: The characteristics of the hypertensive and heart failure states include alterations in neuronal nitric oxide within the PVN to cause an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity to result in sodium and fluid retention in these diseases. A comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms will enhance our ability to treat hypertensive and heart failure conditions and their cardiovascular complications more efficiently.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)235-246
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent Hypertension Reports
Volume24
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Keywords

  • Heart failure
  • Hypertension
  • Renal nerves
  • Volume regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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