A high docosahexaenoic acid diet alters the lung inflammatory response to acute dust exposure

Edward C. Dominguez, Art J. Heires, Jacqueline Pavlik, Tricia D. Larsen, Stephanie Guardado, Joseph H. Sisson, Michelle L. Baack, Debra J. Romberger, Tara M. Nordgren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Agricultural workers are at risk for the development of acute and chronic lung diseases due to their exposure to organic agricultural dusts. A diet intervention using the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to be an effective therapeutic approach for alleviating a dust-induced inflammatory response. We thus hypothesized a high-DHA diet would alter the dust-induced inflammatory response through the increased production of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). Mice were pre-treated with a DHA-rich diet 4 weeks before being intranasally challenged with a single dose of an extract made from dust collected from a concentrated swine feeding operation (HDE). This omega-3-fatty-acid-rich diet led to reduced arachidonic acid levels in the blood, enhanced macrophage recruitment, and increased the production of the DHA-derived SPM Resolvin D1 (RvD1) in the lung following HDE exposure. An assessment of transcript-level changes in the immune response demonstrated significant differences in immune pathway activation and alterations of numerous macrophage-associated genes among HDE-challenged mice fed a high DHA diet. Our data indicate that consuming a DHA-rich diet leads to the enhanced production of SPMs during an acute inflammatory challenge to dust, supporting a role for dietary DHA supplementation as a potential therapeutic strategy for reducing dust-induced lung inflammation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2334
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalNutrients
Volume12
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2020

Keywords

  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
  • Lung inflammation
  • Omega-3 fatty acids
  • Organic dust
  • Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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