Emotional/behavioral disturbance (EBD) is characterized by a range of behaviors that adversely affect a child's academic performance and cannot be explained by other sensory or health impairments. Although research has clearly demonstrated that children and youth with EBD tend to exhibit high rates of problem behavior, research on the characteristics of their academic performance has been less clear. This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of the academic status of students with EBD. The over-all effect size was -.64, which indicated that students with EBD had significant deficits in academic achievement. An examination of moderators (subject area, setting, and age) indicated that students with EBD performed at a significantly lower level than did students without disabilities across academic subjects and settings; greater deficits were not observed in older students with EBD (i.e., those more than 12 years old), as compared to younger students. Implications and areas for future research are discussed.
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