A multiplex immunoassay demonstrates reductions in gingival crevicular fluid cytokines following initial periodontal therapy

D. H. Thunell, K. D. Tymkiw, G. K. Johnson, S. Joly, K. K. Burnell, J. E. Cavanaugh, K. A. Brogden, J. M. Guthmiller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations


Background and Objective: Cytokines and chemokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the effect of initial periodontal therapy on gingival crevicular fluid levels of a comprehensive panel of cytokines and chemokines, including several less extensively studied mediators. Material and Methods: Clinical examinations were performed and gingival crevicular fluid samples obtained from six subjects with generalized severe chronic periodontitis prior to initial periodontal therapy and at re-evaluation (6-8 weeks). Four diseased and two healthy sites were sampled in each subject. Twenty-two gingival crevicular fluid mediators were examined using a multiplex antibody capture and detection platform. Statistical analyses were performed by fitting mixed effects linear models to log-transformed gingival crevicular fluid values. Results: Gingival crevicular fluid interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-1β were the only cytokines to differ in initially diseased vs. initially healthy sites. Following initial therapy, 13 of the 16 detectable cytokines and chemokines decreased significantly in diseased sites, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12 (p40), CCL5/regulated on activation, normally T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), eotaxin, macrophage chemotactic protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α and interferon-γ. At healthy sites, only three of the 16 mediators were significantly altered following therapy. Conclusion: This is the first study, to our knowledge, to evaluate such an extensive panel of gingival crevicular fluid mediators within the same sample prior to and following initial therapy. The results confirm that periodontal therapy effectively reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including less well-described mediators that may be important in initiation and progression of periodontitis. The multiplex assay will prove useful for future gingival crevicular fluid studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)148-152
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Periodontal Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemokine
  • Cytokine
  • Multiplex immunoassay
  • Periodontal therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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