A new paradigm for antiretroviral delivery: Long-acting cabotegravir and rilpivirine for the treatment and prevention of HIV

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose of reviewCabotegravir (CAB) and rilpivirine (RPV) is the first long-acting injectable antiretroviral therapy (ART) option approved for virologically suppressed adults with HIV-1. In addition, long-acting CAB is a promising agent for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This review focuses on phase 3 clinical trial results and implementation considerations for these long-acting ART and PrEP strategies.Recent findingsLong-acting CAB and RPV administered every 4 weeks demonstrated noninferiority to oral ART through week 96 in both the ATLAS and FLAIR studies, whereas ATLAS-2M found similar efficacy through 96 weeks when the long-acting injectable ART was administered every 8 weeks instead of every 4 weeks. For prevention, two phase 3 trials were stopped early due to fewer incident HIV infections in participants receiving long-acting CAB every 8 weeks compared with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine for PrEP. The long-acting therapies were well tolerated across all clinical trials.SummaryClinical trial results support the use of long-acting CAB for HIV PrEP and long-acting CAB and RPV as a switch strategy for adults with HIV-1 who are first virologically suppressed with oral ART. Implementation challenges persist, and data are urgently needed in populations who may benefit most from long-acting therapy, including adolescents, pregnant individuals, and those with barriers to medication adherence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-31
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

Keywords

  • antiretroviral therapy
  • cabotegravir
  • long-acting injectable antiretroviral
  • preexposure prophylaxis
  • rilpivirine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Oncology(nursing)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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