Purpose of reviewCabotegravir (CAB) and rilpivirine (RPV) is the first long-acting injectable antiretroviral therapy (ART) option approved for virologically suppressed adults with HIV-1. In addition, long-acting CAB is a promising agent for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This review focuses on phase 3 clinical trial results and implementation considerations for these long-acting ART and PrEP strategies.Recent findingsLong-acting CAB and RPV administered every 4 weeks demonstrated noninferiority to oral ART through week 96 in both the ATLAS and FLAIR studies, whereas ATLAS-2M found similar efficacy through 96 weeks when the long-acting injectable ART was administered every 8 weeks instead of every 4 weeks. For prevention, two phase 3 trials were stopped early due to fewer incident HIV infections in participants receiving long-acting CAB every 8 weeks compared with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine for PrEP. The long-acting therapies were well tolerated across all clinical trials.SummaryClinical trial results support the use of long-acting CAB for HIV PrEP and long-acting CAB and RPV as a switch strategy for adults with HIV-1 who are first virologically suppressed with oral ART. Implementation challenges persist, and data are urgently needed in populations who may benefit most from long-acting therapy, including adolescents, pregnant individuals, and those with barriers to medication adherence.
- antiretroviral therapy
- long-acting injectable antiretroviral
- preexposure prophylaxis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases