Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase is a flavoenzyme that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of reduced lipoyl substrates with the reduction of NAD+ to NADH. In vivo, the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3) is associated with the pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, and glycine dehydrogenase complexes. The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex connects the glycolytic flux to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is central to the regulation of primary metabolism. Regulation of PDH via regulation of the E3 component by the NAD+/NADH ratio represents one of the important physiological control mechanisms of PDH activity. Furthermore, previous experiments with the isolated E3 component have demonstrated the importance of pH in dictating NAD+/NADH ratio effects on enzymatic activity. Here, we show that a three-state mechanism that represents the major redox states of the enzyme and includes a detailed representation of the active-site chemistry constrained by both equilibrium and thermodynamic loop constraints can be used to model regulatory NAD+/NADH ratio and pH effects demonstrated in progress-curve and initial-velocity data sets from rat, human, Escherichia coli, and spinach enzymes. Global fitting of the model provides stable predictions to the steady-state distributions of enzyme redox states as a function of lipoamide/dihydrolipoamide, NAD+/NADH, and pH. These distributions were calculated using physiological NAD+/NADH ratios representative of the diverse organismal sources of E3 analyzed in this study. This mechanistically detailed, thermodynamically constrained, pH-dependent model of E3 provides a stable platform on which to accurately model multicomponent enzyme complexes that implement E3 from a variety of organisms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas