A real-time negotiation model and a multi-agent sensor network implementation

Leen Kiat Soh, Costas Tsatsoulis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


This paper describes a negotiation model that incorporates real-time issues for autonomous agents. This model consists of two important ideas: a real-time logical negotiation protocol and a case-based negotiation model. The protocol integrates a real-time Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) model, a temporal logic model, and communicative acts for negotiation. This protocol explicitly defines the logical and temporal relationships of different knowledge states, facilitating real-time designs such as multi-threaded processing, state profiling and updating, and a set of real-time enabling functional predicates in our implementation. To further support the protocol, we use a case-based reasoning model for negotiation strategy selection. An agent learns from its past experience by deriving a negotiation strategy from the most similar and useful case to its current situation. Guided by the strategy, the agent negotiates with its partners using an argumentation-based negotiation protocol. The model is time and situation aware such that each agent changes its negotiation behavior according to the progress and status of the ongoing negotiation and its current agent profile. We apply the negotiation model to a resource allocation problem and obtain promising results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)215-271
Number of pages57
JournalAutonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 2005


  • Argumentative negotiation protocol
  • Case-based reasoning
  • Multi-agent system
  • Real-time negotiation
  • Temporal logic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence


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