Diffuse reflections have received increasing attention in architectural acoustics over the past quarter century. The term diffuse refers to non-specular directions. This paper identifies three mechanisms that cause diffuse reflections. Practitioners have found that changing specular reflections into diffuse reflections can reduce noise and echoes both indoors and outdoors. Developers of acoustical modeling software have also found that modeling diffuse in additional to specular reflections produces more accurate predictions. The final portion of this paper presents results for a study of scattering coefficients in acoustical modeling software. Copyright ASCE 2006.