Increasing utilization of nuclear power enhances the risks associated with industrial accidents, occupational hazards, and the threat of nuclear terrorism. Exposure to ionizing radiation interferes with genomic stability and gene expression resulting in the disruption of normal metabolic processes in cells and organs by inducing complex biological responses. Exposure to high-dose radiation causes acute radiation syndrome, which leads to hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, cerebrovascular, and many other organ-specific injuries. Altered genomic variations, gene expression, metabolite concentrations, and microbiota profiles in blood plasma or tissue samples reflect the whole-body radiation injuries. Hence, multi-omic profiles obtained from high-resolution omics platforms offer a holistic approach for identifying reliable biomarkers to predict the radiation injury of organs and tissues resulting from radiation exposures. In this review, we performed a literature search to systematically catalog the radiation-induced alterations from multi-omic studies and radiation countermeasures. We covered radiation-induced changes in the genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, lipidomic, and microbiome profiles. Furthermore, we have covered promising multi-omic biomarkers, FDA-Approved countermeasure drugs, and other radiation countermeasures that include radioprotectors and radiomitigators. This review presents an overview of radiation-induced alterations of multi-omics profiles and biomarkers, and associated radiation countermeasures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging