A scale to assess the restrictiveness of educational settings

Michael H. Epstein, Kevin P. Quinn, Carla Cumblad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The placement of students into educational settings is perhaps one of the most debated issues in special education, particularly for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A primary consideration in this decision is the restrictiveness of the setting, yet no scale to assess restrictiveness of educational settings exists. We undertook two surveys that asked respondents to rate the restrictiveness of 18 educational placements. The first survey was sent to a national panel of experts, the second survey was sent to supervisors of programs for students with EBD. The results of the surveys led to the development of the Scale to Assess Restrictiveness of Educational Settings. This scale is designed to provide a measure of restrictiveness of educational settings that can provide data to evaluate student progress and program outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)107-119
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Child and Family Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1994


  • child outcomes
  • educational restrictiveness
  • program evaluation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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