Variety of conventional vaccine strategies tested against HIV-1 have failed to induce protection against HIV acquisition or durable control of viremia. Therefore, innovative strategies that can induce long lasting protective immunity against HIV chronic infection are needed. Recently, we developed an integration-defective HIV lentiDNA vaccine that undergoes a single cycle of replication in target cells in which most viral antigens are produced. A single immunization with such lentiDNA induced long-lasting T-cell and modest antibody responses in cynomolgus macaques. Here eighteen months after this single immunization, all animals were subjected to repeated low dose intra-rectal challenges with a heterologous pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate. Although the viral set point in SIVmac-infected cynomolgus is commonly lower than that seen in Indian rhesus macaques, the vaccinated group of macaques displayed a two log reduction of peak of viremia followed by a progressive and sustained control of virus replication relative to control animals. This antiviral control correlated with antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with high capacity of recall responses comprising effector and central memory T cells but also memory T cell precursors. This is the first description of SIV control in NHP model infected at 18 months following a single immunization with a non-integrative single cycle lentiDNA HIV vaccine. While not delivering sterilizing immunity, our single immunization strategy with a single-cycle lentivector DNA vaccine appears to provide an interesting and safe vaccine platform that warrants further exploration.
- CD8+ T cells
- HIV vaccine
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases