Alcohol consumption worsens hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection pathogenesis. We have recently reported that acetaldehyde suppressed HBV peptide-major histocompatibility complex I (MHC class I) complex display on hepatocytes, limiting recognition and subsequent removal of the infected hepatocytes by HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This suppression was attributed to impaired processing of antigenic peptides by the proteasome. However, in addition to proteasome dysfunction, alcohol may induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and Golgi fragmentation in HBV-infected liver cells to reduce uploading of viral peptides to MHC class I and/or trafficking of this complex to the hepatocyte surface. Hence, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether alcohol-induced ER stress and Golgi fragmentation affect HBV peptide-MHC class I complex presentation on HBV× hepatocytes. Here, we demonstrate that, while both acetaldehyde and HBV independently cause ER stress and Golgi fragmentation, the combined exposure provided an additive effect. Thus we observed an activation of the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α-X-box binding protein 1 and activation transcription factor (ATF)6α, but not the phospho PKR-like ER kinase-phospho eukaryotic initiation factor 2α-ATF4-C/EBP homologous protein arms of ER stress in HBV-transfected cells treated with acetaldehyde-generating system (AGS). In addition, Golgi proteins trans-Golgi network 46, GM130, and Giantin revealed punctate distribution, indicating Golgi fragmentation upon AGS exposure. Furthermore, the effects of acetaldehyde were reproduced by treatment with ER stress inducers, thapsigargin and tunicamycin, which also decreased the display of this complex and MHC class I turnover in HepG2.2.15 cells and HBV-infected primary human hepatocytes. Taken together, alcohol-induced ER stress and Golgi fragmentation contribute to the suppression of HBV peptide-MHC class I complex presentation on HBV× hepatocytes, which may diminish their recognition by CTLs and promote persistence of HBV infection in hepatocytes. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our current findings show that acetaldehyde accelerates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by activating the unfolded protein response arms inositol-requiring enzyme 1α-X-box binding protein 1 and activation transcription factor (ATF)6α but not phospho PKR-like ER kinase-p eukaryotic initiation factor 2α-ATF4-C/EBP homologous protein in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells. It also potentiates Golgi fragmentation, as evident by punctate distribution of Golgi proteins, GM130, trans-Golgi network 46, and Giantin. While concomitantly increasing HBV DNA and HBV surface antigen titers, acetaldehyde-induced ER stress suppresses the presentation of HBV peptide-major histocompatibility complex I complexes on hepatocyte surfaces, thereby promoting the persistence of HBV infection in the liver.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology|
|State||Published - 2020|
- ER stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)