Adherence and Outcomes with Urate-Lowering Therapy: A Site-Randomized Trial

Ted R. Mikuls, T. Craig Cheetham, Gerald D. Levy, Nazia Rashid, Artak Kerimian, Kimberly J. Low, Brian W. Coburn, David T. Redden, Kenneth G. Saag, P. Jeffrey Foster, Lang Chen, Jeffrey R. Curtis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test a pharmacist-led intervention to improve gout treatment adherence and outcomes. Methods: We conducted a site-randomized trial (n=1463 patients) comparing a 1-year, pharmacist-led intervention to usual care in patients with gout initiating allopurinol. The intervention was delivered primarily through automated telephone technology. Co-primary outcomes were the proportion of patients adherent (proportion of days covered ≥0.8) and achieving a serum urate <6.0 mg/dl at 1 year. Outcomes were reassessed at year 2. Results: Patients who underwent intervention were more likely than patients of usual care to be adherent (50% vs 37%; odds ratio [OR] 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30, 2.17) and reach serum urate goal (30% vs 15%; OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.83, 3.05). In the second year (1 year after the intervention ended), differences were attenuated, remaining significant for urate goal but not for adherence. The intervention was associated with a 6%-16% lower gout flare rate during year 2, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: A pharmacist-led intervention incorporating automated telephone technology improved adherence and serum urate goal in patients with gout initiating allopurinol. Although this light-touch, low-tech intervention was efficacious, additional efforts are needed to enhance patient engagement in gout management and ultimately to improve outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)354-361
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2019


  • Adherence
  • Allopurinol
  • Gout
  • Pharmacist
  • Pragmatic trial
  • Randomized trial
  • Serum urate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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