Purpose of review We are pleased to review current and future strategies being developed to modulate neuroinflammation while reducing residual viral burden in the central nervous system. This has been realized by targeted longacting antiretroviral nano and adjunctive therapies being developed for HIV-infected people. Our ultimate goal is to eliminate virus from its central nervous system reservoirs and, in so doing, reverse the cognitive and motor dysfunctions. Recent findings Herein, we highlight our laboratories' development of adjunctive and nanomedicine therapies for HIVassociated neurocognitive disorders. An emphasis is placed on drug-drug interactions that target both the viral life cycle and secretory proinflammatory neurotoxic factors and signaling pathways. Summary Antiretroviral therapy has improved the quality and duration of life for people living with HIV-1. A significant long-term comorbid illness is HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Symptoms, although reduced in severity, are common. Disease occurs, in part, through continued low-level viral replication, inducing secondary glial neuroinflammatory activities. Our recent works and those of others have seen disease attenuated in animal models through the use of adjunctive and long-acting reservoir-targeted nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy. The translation of these inventions from animals to humans is the focus of this review.
- HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
- Mixed lineage kinase
- Nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases