Administrative discipline contacts: A review of the literature

J. Ron Nelson, Jorge E. Gonzalez, Michael H. Epstein, Gregory J. Benner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The authors systematically review the available research on administrative discipline contacts to (a) identify the domain variables (e.g., gender, ethnicity) that influence the use of administrative discipline contacts, (b) identify participant classification variables (e.g., antisocial) related to administrative discipline contacts, and (c) determine the validity of administrative discipline contacts. They drew from 20 independent samples published in 23 articles. A wide range of school (e.g., grade level, size) and student (e.g., achievement, abilities, socioeconomic status, ethnicity) domain variables appear to influence the use of administrative discipline contacts, whereas administrator/teacher (e.g., ethnicity, gender) and family (e.g., parenting style, education levels of parents) variables have less influence. Four participant classification variables appear to be related to administrative discipline contacts: participation in athletics; child neglect; antisocial behavior; and anecdotal suspension report. The concurrent and predictive validity of administrative discipline contacts appears to be relatively limited. The findings and future research needs are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)249-281
Number of pages33
JournalBehavioral Disorders
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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