Opioids are widely prescribed for pain management, and prescription opioid misuse in adolescents has become a major epidemic in the United States and worldwide. Emerging data indicate that adolescence represents a critical period of brain development, and exposure to opioids during adolescence may increase the risk of addiction in adulthood. There is growing evidence that disruptions in brain glial function may be implicated in numerous chronic neuropathologies. Evidence suggests that glial mechanisms have an important role in the development and maintenance of opioid abuse and the risk for addiction. This review will describe glial and neuroimmune mechanisms involved in opioid use disorders during adolescence, which may increase substance use disorder liability later in life. Moreover, this review will identify some important neuro-glial targets, involved in opioid abuse and addiction, to develop future preventions and treatment strategies.