Advances in long-acting slow effective release antiretroviral therapies for treatment and prevention of HIV infection

Mohammad Ullah Nayan, Brady Sillman, Mahmudul Hasan, Suyash Deodhar, Srijanee Das, Ashrafi Sultana, Nam Thai Hoang Le, Vicente Soriano, Benson Edagwa, Howard E. Gendelman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Adherence to daily oral antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a barrier to both treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To overcome limitations of life-long daily regimen adherence, long-acting (LA) injectable antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, nanoformulations, implants, vaginal rings, microarray patches, and ultra-long-acting (ULA) prodrugs are now available or in development. These medicines enable persons who are or at risk for HIV infection to be treated with simplified ART regimens. First-generation LA cabotegravir, rilpivirine, and lenacapavir injectables and a dapivirine vaginal ring are now in use. However, each remains limited by existing dosing intervals, ease of administration, or difficulties in finding drug partners. ULA ART regimens provide an answer, but to date, such next-generation formulations remain in development. Establishing the niche will require affirmation of extended dosing, improved access, reduced injection volumes, improved pharmacokinetic profiles, selections of combination treatments, and synchronization of healthcare support. Based on such needs, this review highlights recent pharmacological advances and a future treatment perspective. While first-generation LA ARTs are available for HIV care, they remain far from ideal in meeting patient needs. ULA medicines, now in advanced preclinical development, may close gaps toward broader usage and treatment options.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115009
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • Adverse reactions
  • Antiretroviral prodrugs
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Integrase strand transfer inhibitors
  • Long-acting slow effective release antiretroviral therapy
  • Medicinal and polymer chemistry
  • Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Pharmacokinetic testing
  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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