Advances in the Experimental Models of HIV-Associated Neurological Disorders

Susmita Sil, Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Fang Niu, Divya T. Chemparathy, Shilpa Buch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose of Review: Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in HIV-1 infection is commonly associated with neurological disorders and cognitive impairment, commonly referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Severe and progressive neurocognitive impairment is rarely observed in the post-cART era; however, asymptomatic and mild neurocognitive disorders still exist, despite viral suppression. Additionally, comorbid conditions can also contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Recent Findings: In this review, we summarize the characterization of HAND, factors contributing, and the functional impairments in both preclinical and clinical models. Specifically, we also discuss recent advances in the animal models of HAND and in in vitro cultures and the potential role of drugs of abuse in this model system of HAND. Potential peripheral biomarkers associated with HAND are also discussed. Summary: Overall, this review identifies some of the recent advances in the field of HAND in cell culture studies, animal models, clinical findings, and the limitations of each model system, which can play a key role in developing novel therapeutics in the field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)459-474
Number of pages16
JournalCurrent HIV/AIDS Reports
Volume18
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Drug abuse
  • HAND
  • HIV
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Synaptodendritic injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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