Agricultural Injuries: Risk Factors and Severity by Affected Body Part among US (Midwest) Farmers

Balkissa S. Ouattara, Cheryl L. Beseler, Risto H. Rautiainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objectives: Statistics from the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate that agriculture consistently ranks as the most hazardous industry in the US. To identify specific targets for prevention, we investigated injury risk factor profiles separately for each injured body site. We also characterized the severity of agricultural injuries by injured body site using the type of medical care and lost work time due to injury. Methods: We used the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health (CS-CASH) surveillance data for 2018 to perform descriptive statistics and regression modeling. Results: We found that 12% (513/4351) of the participants experienced one or more injuries in the previous 12 months. Compared to female operators, male operators had 3.53 (95% CI: 1.17–10.68) times higher odds of back injury. Operators in livestock production had 2.77 times (95% CI:1.12–6.82), 2.28 times (95% CI:1.25–4.14), and 1.69 times (95% CI:1.10–2.59) higher odds of injury to the chest/trunk, finger, and leg/knee/hip, respectively, compared to operators in crop or mixed production. After adjusting for age and gender, operators who worked full time (vs. part-time) on the farm/ranch had 2.11 times (95% CI:1.03–4.34) higher odds of back injury. Arm/shoulder and leg/knee/hip injuries were more frequent in older age groups. Conclusions: Prevention measures should be tailored considering specifically livestock producers with emphasis on trainings on proper livestock handling, such as being gentle, establishing routine, keeping distance, and avoiding sudden and loud noise when handling animals. Applying these techniques avoid startling the animals and reduce the risk of injuries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)214-223
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Agromedicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023


  • Agricultural injuries
  • body part
  • risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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