Aldehyde-modified proteins as mediators of early inflammation in atherosclerotic disease

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Inflammation is widely accepted to play a major role in atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, the exact mechanism(s) by which inflammation exerts its pathogenic effect remains poorly understood. A number of oxidatively modified proteins have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recently, attention has been given to the oxidative compound of malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde, two reactive aldehydes known to covalently bind and adduct macromolecules. These products have been shown to form stable malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts that are reactive and induce immune responses. These adducts have been found in inflamed and diseased cardiovascular tissue of patients. Antibodies to these adducted proteins are measurable in the serum of diseased patients. The isotypes involved in the immune response to MAA (i.e., IgM, IgG, and IgA) are predictive of atherosclerotic disease progression and cardiovascular events such as an acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass grafting. Therefore, it is the purpose of this article to review the past and current knowledge of aldehyde-modified proteins and their role in cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)409-418
Number of pages10
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015


  • Acetaldehyde
  • Antibodies
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Free radicals
  • Immune response
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Oxidative stress
  • Protein adduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)


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