Tissues of the eye affected by diabetes are the lens, cornea, and retina. The lens becomes cataractous through osmotic swelling of its cortical fibers. Sorbitol, formed in the presence of aldose reductase, accumulates in the lens during hyperglycemia. Dulcitol similarly accumulates in the presence of galactosemia. Cataractogenesis in both cases can be prevented by inhibitors of aldose reductase. The efficacy of synthetic inhibitors differs in various tissues and species, but they react with aldose reductase at a common structural site. The most promising inhibitor is sorbinil. Diabetic retinopathy is similarly related to sorbitol accumulation and may be prevented or reversed by inhibition of aldose reductase. Healing of corneal wounds in diabetes is facilitated by enzyme inhibition. Retinal vasculopathy of diabetes is due to selective loss of the intramural pericytes that normally form structural elements in the retinal capillary walls. The vulnerability of these cells is due to their aldose reductase content. Whether inhibition of aldose reductase will prevent retinopathy is being tested in a randomized trial conducted by the National Eye Institute.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Annals of internal medicine|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1984|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine