Increasing concern towards climate change and water conservation has attracted wide attention of researchers to explore the biological carbon fixation and wastewater treatment by using microalgae. Algal biomass can be harvested in an integrated system provided with carbon dioxide from power plants and wastewater released from industrial and domestic sector. In this way simultaneous potential of microalgae can be utilized for simultaneous fixation of CO2 and wastewater treatment. This article present a critical review focusing on challenges in algal biomass production technologies and how to achieve algal biofuel production in an integrated system of CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment by suitable microalgal species. In view of these objectives, this article provides a comprehensive narration about the following: (a) perspectives of carbon uptake by algal biomass; (b) industrial emissions as a CO2 supplement for algal cultivation; (c) water foot print for algal cultivation; and (d) genomics for improvement of algal biofuel production. This review found that technical feasibility, economic viability, and resource sustainability are the key steps for algal biofuel production that can be achieved through flue gas and wastewater nexus in algal cultivation. It also provides salient features of algae-nutrient-wastewater-flue gas dynamics to measure the influences of flue gas and wastewater on algal biomass productivity.
- Algal-nutrient-wastewater-flue gas dynamics (ANWFD)
- Flue gas
- Water footprinting
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment