Alternative models for carcinogenicity testing: Weight of evidence evaluations across models

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Twenty-one chemicals were evaluated by standardized protocols in 6 mouse models that have been sugggested as alternatives to the 2-year mouse bioassay. Included were genotoxic and nongenotoxic chemicals, carcinogens and noncarcinogens, immunosuppressive and estrogenic agents, peroxisome proliferators, and chemicals producing cancer in rodents by other mechanisms. Mice were sacrificed at the end of 6 to 12 months, depending on the model. Standardized histopathology, biostatistical analyses, and criteria for overall evaluation of the results were employed. The TgAC transgenic (dermal and oral administration), the Tg-rasH2 transgenic, the heterozygous p53 gene knockout, the homozygous XPA and homozygous XPA-heterozygous p53 gene knockout, and the neonatal mouse models were evaluated. The chemicals were also evaluated in the in vitro SHE assay. Comparison of the results between the various in vivo models suggest that they might have usefulness as screening bioassays for hazard identification for potential human carcinogens. They have the benefits of being quicker, less expensive, and involve fewer animals than the traditional 2-year mouse bioassay. They do not appear to be overly sensitive. However, they do not definitively distinguish between genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens, and they do not have 100% specificity for identifying human carcinogens. Like the 2-year bioassay, the results from these models need to be evaluated in conjunction with other information on a chemical in an overall weight-of-evidence, integrated analytical approach to assess risk for human exposures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-190
Number of pages8
JournalToxicologic Pathology
Issue numberSUPPL.
StatePublished - 2001


  • Chronic mouse bioassay
  • Chronic rat bioassay
  • Genotoxicity
  • Risk assessment
  • Transgenic mouse models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Toxicology
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Alternative models for carcinogenicity testing: Weight of evidence evaluations across models'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this