Analysis of the binding of warfarin to glyoxal- and methylglyoxal-modified human serum albumin by ultrafast affinity extraction

Sazia Iftekhar, Zhao Li, Pingyang Tao, Saumen Poddar, David S. Hage

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Ultrafast affinity extraction (UAE) and affinity microcolumns containing immobilized human serum albumin (HSA) were employed to evaluate the effect of advanced stage glycation on HSA and its binding to warfarin, a common site-specific probe for Sudlow site I of this protein. The modification of HSA by glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) was considered, where GO and MGO are known to be important in the formation of many types of advanced glycation end products. Free drug fractions were measured by UAE for warfarin in solutions containing normal HSA or HSA that had been modified by GO or MGO at levels seen in serum during diabetes. The free fractions measured with the GO-modified HSA gave association equilibrium constants that ranged from 2.42–2.63 × 105 M−1 at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. These values were not significantly different from a value of 2.33 (±0.15) × 105 M−1 that was determined by the same method for warfarin with normal HSA. Similar studies using MGO-modified HSA gave association equilibrium constants for warfarin in the range of 3.07–3.31 × 105 M−1, which were 1.32- to 1.42-fold higher than the value seen for normal HSA (differences that were significant at the 95% confidence level). These results will be valuable in future binding studies based on affinity chromatography or other methods that employ warfarin as a probe to examine drug interactions at Sudlow site I of HSA and modified forms of this protein. This work also illustrates how UAE can be used, with analysis times of only minutes, to detect and measure small changes in the binding by drugs with unmodified or modified forms of a soluble binding agent or protein.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number123500
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
StatePublished - Nov 15 2022


  • Advanced glycation end products
  • Drug-protein binding
  • Human serum albumin
  • Ultrafast affinity extraction
  • Warfarin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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