Analyte recovery in LC-MS/MS bioanalysis: An old issue revisited

Devendra Kumar, Nagsen Gautam, Yazen Alnouti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


There are several challenges associated with LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method development and validation. Low and variable recovery of some analytes, especially the more hydrophobic ones, is often challenging. Analytes can be lost to various extents throughout the process of sample collection, storage, before, during, and/or after sample preparation and analysis. The calculation of overall extraction recovery can detect problems of low recovery during sample preparation but does not identify the source(s) of analyte losses. Low overall analyte recovery is the net result of losses that can happen for multiple reasons at all steps of sample preparation and analysis. Therefore, identifying the source(s) of analyte loss during sample preparation can help guide the optimization the bioanalysis conditions to minimize these losses. In this article we propose a practical protocol to systematically identify and quantify the sources of low analyte recovery. This allows the proper choice of strategies to optimize the relevant bioanalytical conditions to minimize analyte losses and improve overall recovery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number339512
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
StatePublished - Mar 15 2022


  • Bioanalytical method
  • LC-MS/MS
  • Matrix effect
  • Recovery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy


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