Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Illnesses in Persons With HIV Compared With Persons Without HIV

MacKenzie R. Keintz, Anum Abbas, Elizabeth Lyden, Jihyun Ma, Sara H. Bares, Trevor C. Van Schooneveld, Jasmine R. Marcelin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Antibiotic overuse increases health care cost and promotes antimicrobial resistance. People with HIV (PWH) who develop acute respiratory infections (ARIs) may be assumed to be "higher risk,"compared with non-PWH, but comparative antibiotic use evaluations have not been performed. Methods: This observational, single-center study compared antibiotic prescribing in independent clinical encounters for PWH and non-PWH diagnosed with ARI in outpatient clinical practices using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes between January 1, 2014, and April 30, 2018. The Fisher exact test compared categorical variables with antibiotic prescribing patterns. Results: There were 209 patients in the PWH cohort vs 398 patients in the non-PWH cohort. PWH had a median CD4+ count of 610 cells/mm3, with 91% on antiretroviral therapy and 78% virally suppressed. Thirty-seven percent of all visits resulted in an antibiotic prescription, and 89% were inappropriate. Antibiotics were prescribed more frequently in non-PWH (35% PWH vs 40% non-PWH; P =. 172) and managed according to guidelines more often in PWH (37% PWH vs 30% non-PWH; P =. 039). Antibiotics were prescribed appropriately most frequently in PWH managed by HIV clinicians (29% PWH managed by HIV clinician vs 12% PWH managed by non-HIV clinician vs 8% non-PWH; P =. 010). HIV clinicians prescribed antibiotics for a mean duration of 5.9 days vs PWH managed by a non-HIV clinician for 9.1 days vs non-PWH for 7.6 days (P <. 0001). Conclusions: Outpatient antibiotic overuse remains prevalent among patients evaluated for ARI. We found less frequent inappropriate antibiotic use in PWH. Prescriber specialty, rather than HIV diagnosis, was related to appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofac218
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022


  • Antimicrobial stewardship
  • HIV medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Infectious Diseases


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