Anticholinergic bronchodilators in combination

Raymond Pineda, Stephen I. Rennard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which affects approximately 14 million Americans, is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and is responsible for an estimated US$6.5 billion in direct and indirect costs per year [1,2]. Its usual course is a slow deterioration of lung function and progressive breathlessness with activities. The age-adjusted death rate for COPD rose 71% from 1967 to 1987, and the 10 year mortality rate is about 50%. Bronchodilators form one of the mainstays of therapy in COPD patients. The judicious use of these agents increases airflow and reduces dyspnea in patients with COPD. Patients often experience a reduction in symptoms and improvement in their quality of life. There are several classes of bronchodilators available for the treatment of COPD, each with specific clinical benefits: anticholinergics, short-acting 2 agonists, combination anticholinergic and short-acting 2 agonist, long-acting 2 agonists and methylxanthines. This chapter reviews the use of an anticholinergic (ipratropium bromide) concomitantly with other bronchodilators, focusing on patients with COPD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1281-1287
Number of pages7
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2000


  • Anticholinergic
  • Bronchodilators
  • COPD
  • Inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Anticholinergic bronchodilators in combination'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this