Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from droppings of layer chicken in two farms in Nigeria

Olufunke B. Shittu, Leonard I. Uzairue, Olufemi E. Ojo, Tolulope M. Obuotor, Jamiu B. Folorunso, Ramota R. Raheem-Ademola, Grace Olanipekun, Theresa Ajose, Nubwa Medugu, Bernard Ebruke, Stephen K. Obaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Aim: This study aimed to investigate the isolation rate, antibiotic resistance and virulence genes of Salmonella enterica serovar from two commercial farms in Nigeria. Methods and Results: Salmonella isolation was performed according to the United States Food and Drug Agency (USFDA) method. Serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of resistance and virulence genes were done using the Kauffman–White Scheme, disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. Salmonella serovars were isolated from only farm A at 22/50 (44.0%) while none were isolated from farm B. Salmonella Typhi, 9 (40.9%); Salmonella Typhimurium, 2 (9.1%), Salmonella Enteritidis, 2 (9.1%), Salmonella Pullorum, 1 (4.5%), Salmonella Kentucky, 4 (18.2%) were identified while 4 (18.2%) were untypable. Sixteen isolates (72.7%) showed multiple drug resistance and 17 different resistance profile types with AMP-CHL-TRM-SXT as the most prevalent pattern. Resistance genes (blaTEM, 12/22 (54.5%) and virulence genes (InvA, sopB, mgtC and spi4D, 22/22 (100.0%), ssaQ, 16/22 (72.7%) and spvC, 13/22 (59.1%) were found, while blaSHV, blaCTX-M, floR, tetA, tetB, tetG and LJSGI-1 genes were absent. Conclusion: Pathogenic Salmonella were isolated from the chicken droppings in this study. Most of these strains were resistant to antibiotics and possessed characteristics of virulence. Significance and Impact of the Study: Chicken droppings from this study area contained pathogenic strains of Salmonella and a rare occurrence of Salmonella Typhi. The study revealed that the environment and the food chain could be at risk of contamination of highly virulent and antimicrobial-resistant strains of Salmonella. These could affect the profitability of the poultry industry and food consumption. There is a need for caution in indiscriminate disposal of poultry waste and the use of uncomposted chicken droppings in soil amendment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3891-3906
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Applied Microbiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Nigeria
  • antimicrobial resistance genes
  • poultry-droppings
  • salmonella enterica
  • salmonella typhi
  • virulence genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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