Antiproliferation properties of grain sorghum dry distiller's grain lipids in caco-2 cells

Richard Zbasnik, Timothy Carr, Curtis Weller, Keum Taek Hwang, Lijun Wang, Susan Cuppett, Vicki Schlegel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Antiproliferative properties of lipids extracted from grain sorghum (GS) dry distiller's grain (DDG) were analyzed to determine the feasibility of developing GS coproducts as a source for human health dietary ingredients. The lipid extract of GS-DDG was delivered to human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells by solubilizing 0-1000 μg/mL of GS-DDG lipids in 100 μg/mL increments with micelles. A significant reduction in cell viability (25-50%) resulted at treatment levels of 400-1000 μg/mL GS-DDG lipids (p < 0.05). Alternatively, total protein levels of cells treated with 400, 500, and 600,μ/mL of GS-DDG lipid were not significantly different from the control, indicating cell growth during the treatment period. Total cell counts for the control were not significantly different from the GS-DDG lipid treated cells, but dead cell counts increased by ~10% for the latter sample with a concomitant increase of the Intercellular protein lactate dehydrogenase leakage (30-40%) in the medium. Preliminary analysis by the fluorescence-activated cell method (FACs) demonstrated that nonviable cells were in either the early apoptotic, late apoptotic, or necrotic stage post-treatment with 400, 500, and 600μg/mL GS-DDG lipids. Physiochemical characterization of the GS-DDG lipids used for the antiproliferation study showed the presence of vitamin E (predominantly y-tocopherol), triacylglycerides (predominantly linoleic acid), policosanols, aldehydes, and sterols (predominantly campesterol and stigmasterol), each of which or as synergistic/additive group of constituents may be responsible for the antiproliferative effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10435-10441
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 11 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Antiproliferation
  • Caco-2 cells
  • Dry distiller's grain
  • Ethanol
  • Grain sorghum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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