Aqueous flow in galactose-fed dogs

Carol B. Toris, James T. Lane, Yoshio Akagi, Karen A. Blessing, Peter F. Kador

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Dogs fed galactose develop diabetes-like ocular complications that include keratopathy, cataracts, and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether galactosemic dogs display reduced aqueous flow similar to that observed in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Twelve male beagles at 9 months of age were divided into three groups of four. The Galactose group was fed diet containing 30% galactose for 97 months and the Reversal group was fed the galactose diet for an initial 38 months then standard dog diet for the remaining period. The Control group was fed standard dog diet for 97 months. Aqueous flow was determined by fluorophotometry in one eye per dog at 96 and 97 months after the initiation of galactose feeding. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured once in the morning by pneumatonometry. Anterior chamber depth was measured by A-scan. At the end of the experiment, eyes were enucleated and processed for histological examination. Dogs fed galactose diet for 97 months had significantly (p < 0.05) increased body weights but similar IOP and anterior chamber depth compared to the other groups, and significantly (p = 0.05) reduced aqueous flow compared to the control group (4.4 ± 2.2 vs. 6.8 ± 2.4 μl/min, mean ± standard deviation, respectively). Additionally, aqueous flow decreased in the Reversal group to 3.1 ± 1.3 μl/min (p = 0.002). This decrease correlated with morphological changes of the ciliary processes. Like patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, galactose-fed dogs demonstrate reduced aqueous flow. This reduction was irreversible and independent of the retinopathy present. This animal model may be useful for the study of aqueous humor dynamics in diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)865-870
Number of pages6
JournalExperimental Eye Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2006


  • aqueous flow
  • ciliary body
  • diabetes
  • dog
  • galactose
  • intraocular pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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