Aqueous flow measured by fluorophotometry in the mouse

Carol B. Toris, Shan Fan, Thomas V. Johnson, Lucinda J. Camras, Cassandra L. Hays, Hong Liu, Bruce M. Ishimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


PURPOSE. A fluorophotometer designed to measure aqueous flow in murine eyes was tested with artificial fluorescein chambers and in live mice with different anesthesia regimens, aqueous flow suppressants, and an anterior chamber cannulation method. METHODS. Two hours following topical fluorescein application, one group of CD-1 mice was anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine, 2,2,2-tribromoethanol, or ketamine alone. Cornea and anterior chamber fluorescein concentrations were measured periodically for 60 to 90 minutes by fluorophotometric scans to calculate aqueous flow. Later, a subgroup of mice underwent aqueous flow measurement by anterior chamber cannulation. A third group was treated with timolol, dorzolamide, and vehicle in a crossover manner 1 hour prior to fluorophotometric scans. RESULTS. Aqueous flow with ketamine/xylazine anesthesia (0.09 ± 0.05 lL/min, mean ± SD, n = 24) was slower than with tribromoethanol or ketamine alone (P < 0.001). Timolol reduced aqueous flow from 0.20 ± 0.07 lL/min to 0.07 ± 0.03 lL/min (P = 0.001) under tribromoethanol anesthesia and from 0.14 ± 0.03 lL/min to 0.10 ± 0.02 lL/min (P = 0.004) under ketamine anesthesia but not under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. Dorzolamide reduced aqueous flow from 0.09 ± 0.03 to 0.06 ± 0.03 lL/min (P = 0.04) under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. Aqueous flow by anterior chamber cannulation (0.20 ± 0.13 lL/min) was greater (P = 0.05) than by fluorophotometry (0.09 ± 0.07 lL/min). CONCLUSIONS. A new noninvasive fluorophotometric method detected effects of general anesthesia and known aqueous suppressants on aqueous flow in mice. Aqueous flow measured by fluorophotometry was slower than by cannulation, and was technically easier with less variability. The mouse fluorophotometer is useful for repeated measurements of aqueous flow in the murine eye making crossover and longitudinal studies possible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3844-3852
Number of pages9
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number8
StatePublished - Jul 2016


  • Aqueous flow
  • Fluorophotometry
  • Mouse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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