Arabidopsis disrupted in SQD2 encoding sulfolipid synthase is impaired in phosphate-limited growth

Bin Yu, Changcheng Xu, Christoph Benning

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228 Scopus citations


The sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol is one of the three nonphosphorous glycolipids that provide the bulk of the structural lipids in photosynthetic membranes of seed plants. Unlike the galactolipids, sulfolipid is anionic at physiological pH because of its 6-deoxy-6-sulfonate-glucose (sulfoquinovose) head group. The biosynthesis of this lipid proceeds in two steps: first, the assembly of UDP-sulfoquinovose from UDP-glucose and sulfite, and second, the transfer of the sulfoquinovose moiety from UDP-sulfoquinovose to diacylglycerol. The first reaction is catalyzed by the SQD1 protein in Arabidopsis. Here we describe the identification of the SQD2 gene of Arabidopsis. We propose that this gene encodes the sulfoquinovosyltransferase catalyzing the second step of sulfolipid biosynthesis. Expression of SQD1 and SQD2 in Escherichia coli reconstituted plant sulfolipid biosynthesis in this bacterium. Insertion of a transfer DNA into this gene in Arabidopsis led to complete lack of sulfolipid in the respective sqd2 mutant. This mutant showed reduced growth under phosphate-limited growth conditions. The results support the hypothesis that sulfolipid can function as a substitute of anionic phospholipids under phosphate-limited growth conditions. Along with phosphatidylglycerol, sulfolipid contributes to maintaining a negatively charged lipid-water interface, which presumably is required for proper function of photosynthetic membranes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5732-5737
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 16 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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