ARKTOS: An intelligent system for SAR sea ice image classification

Leen Kiat Soh, Costas Tsatsoulis, Denise Gineris, Cheryl Bertoia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Scopus citations


We present an intelligent system for satellite sea ice image analysis named Advanced Reasoning using Knowledge for Typing Of Sea ice (ARKTOS). ARKTOS performs fully automated analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sea ice images by mimicking the reasoning process of sea ice experts. ARKTOS automatically segments a SAR image of sea ice, generates descriptors for the segments of the image, and then uses expert system rules to classify these sea ice features. ARKTOS also utilizes multisource data fusion to improve classification and performs belief handling using Dempster-Shafer. As a software package, ARKTOS comprises components in image processing, rule-based classification, multisource data fusion, and graphical user interface-based knowledge engineering and modification. As a research project over the past ten years, ARKTOS has undergone phases such as knowledge acquisition, prototyping, refinement, evaluation, deployment, and operationalization at the U.S. National Ice Center. In this paper, we focus on the methodology, evaluations, and classification results of ARKTOS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-248
Number of pages20
JournalIEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004


  • Data fusion
  • Dempster-Shafer belief theory
  • Intelligent image analysis
  • Rule-based system
  • Sea ice classification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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