Assessing susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration with proteomic and genomic biomarkers

Jiayin Gu, Gayle J.T. Pauer, Xiuzhen Yue, Umadevi Narendra, Gwen M. Sturgill, James Bena, Xiaorong Gu, Neal S. Peachey, Robert G. Salomon, Stephanie A. Hagstrom, John W. Crabb, David Barnhart, William J. Dupps, Froncie A. Gutman, Peter K. Kaiser, Hilel Lewis, Richard E. Gans, Bennie H. Jeng, Gregory S. Kosmorsky, Ronald R. KruegerAnn Laurenzi, Roger H.S. Langston, Edward J. Rockwood, William E. Sax, Andrew P. Schachat, Jonathan E. Sears, Rishi Singh, Scott D. Smith, Mindy Toabe, Elias I. Traboulsi, Nadia Waheed, Steven E. Wilson, Stacia S. Yaniglos, Elisa Bala, Sonya Bamba, Sue Crowe, Patrice Nerone, Tiffany Ruez, Ellen Simpson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disease and major cause of severe visual loss. Toward the discovery of tools for early identification of AMD susceptibility, we evaluated the combined predictive capability of proteomic and genomic AMD biomarkers. We quantified plasma carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP) oxidative protein modifications and CEP autoantibodies by ELISA in 916 AMD and 488 control donors. CEP adducts are uniquely generated from oxidation of docosahexaenoate-containing lipids that are abundant in the retina. Mean CEP adduct and autoantibody levels were found to be elevated in AMD plasma by ∼60 and ∼30%, respectively. The odds ratio for both CEP markers elevated was 3-fold greater or more in AMD than in control patients. Genotyping was performed for AMD risk polymorphisms associated with age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), high temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1), complement factor H, and complement C3, and the risk of AMD was predicted based on genotype alone or in combination with the CEP markers. The AMD risk predicted for those exhibiting elevated CEP markers and risk genotypes was 2-3-fold greater than the risk based on genotype alone. AMD donors carrying the ARMS2 and HTRA1 risk alleles were the most likely to exhibit elevated CEP markers. The results compellingly demonstrate higher mean CEP marker levels in AMD plasma over a broad age range. Receiver operating characteristic curves suggest that CEP markers alone can discriminate between AMD and control plasma donors with ∼76% accuracy and in combination with genomic markers provide up to ∼80% discrimination accuracy. Plasma CEP marker levels were altered slightly by several demographic and health factors that warrant further study. We conclude that CEP plasma biomarkers, particularly in combination with genomic markers, offer a potential early warning system for assessing susceptibility to this blinding, multifactorial disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1338-1349
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular and Cellular Proteomics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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