Gastroesophageal reflux is the involuntary retrograde passage of gastric contents into the esophagus with or without regurgitation and is considered a normal physiologic process, occurring daily in greater than one-third of all infants. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is pathologic reflux associated with poor weight gain, irritability, dysphagia and often requires evaluation and treatment. No gold-standard testing for GERD exists. Measurements made by pH probe or multichannel intraesophageal impedance may provide insight into the quantity and character of reflux. Those events do not correlate well with clinical symptoms. Most cases of GERD can be treated conservatively with alterations in the infant’s environment and/or feeding pattern. Proton pump inhibi-tors remain the mainstay for pharmacotherapy of GERD, although these have been associated with increased rates of infection, especially in the preterm population. Neonatal GERD remains a difficult entity to define and manage, and additional studies to aid in the clinical diagnosis and management are needed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health