Background: Infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) develop structural lung disease early in life, and viral infections are associated with progressive lung disease. We hypothesized that the presence of respiratory viruses would be associated with structural lung disease on computed tomography (CT) of the chest in infants with CF. Methods: Infants with CF were enrolled before 4 months of age. Multiplex PCR assays were performed on nasal swabs to detect respiratory viruses during routine visits and when symptomatic. Participants underwent CT imaging at approximately 12 months of age. Associations between Perth–Rotterdam Annotated Grid Morphometric Analysis for CF (PRAGMA-CF) CT scores and respiratory viruses and symptoms were assessed with Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: Sixty infants were included for analysis. Human rhinovirus was the most common virus detected, on 28% of tested nasal swabs and in 85% of participants. The median (IQR) extent of lung fields that was healthy based on PRAGMA-CF was 98.7 (0.8)%. There were no associations between PRAGMA-CF and age at first virus, or detection of any virus, including rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, or parainfluenza. The extent of airway wall thickening was associated with ever having wheezed (ρ = 0.31, p = 0.02) and number of encounters with cough (ρ = 0.25, p = 0.0495). Conclusions: Infants with CF had minimal structural lung disease. We did not find an association between respiratory viruses and CT abnormalities. Wheezing and frequency of cough were associated with early structural changes.
- Chest computed tomography
- Cystic fibrosis
- Newborn screening
- Respiratory infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine