Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was invented in 1986 (Binnig et al., 1986), and soon after, the first work has been done on biological samples (Drake et al., 1989; Lindsay et al., 1989). Of fundamental importance for the usability of AFM in biology was the introduction of the optical lever detection principle, which is also applicable in a liquid environment (Alexander et al., 1989; Meyer and Amer, 1988). This makes AFM a unique high-resolution imaging instrument, as biological systems can also be studied under physiological conditions without the need for labeling or staining of the samples.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)