ATTITUDINAL AND NORMATIVE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOLESCENT CIGARETTE SMOKING IN AUSTRALIA AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: A METHODOLOGY TO ASSIST HEALTH EDUCATION PLANNING

Ian M. Newman, Gary L. Martin, Robert P. Irwin

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Abstract

This paper describes an empirically based method for defining the role of attitudes in health education planning. An explicit assumption underlying this method is that the professional health educator is an agent for behavior change who works, primarily via other health professionals, to enhance the health of the target population. To effect change, the health educator must be skilled in (a) problem definition, (b) program development or the treatment of the problem, (c) program implementation and (d) program evaluation. To illustrate this approach we present a model for measuring attitudes and social normative factors which seems useful in defining education need, illustrate its use in a cross‐culture comparison of a sample of adolescent cigarette smokers in Australia and United States of America and suggest some further steps to aid in planning and evaluating health education activities. While this paper emphasizes the role of attitude, attitudes are but one of a number of factors to be considered in health education program development. Anderson1 and Green2 suggest that attitudes and knowledge contribute to a predisposition to a particular behavior but that the ultimate behavior is also influenced by a set of factors best described as enabling the behavior and a set of factors which reinforce the behavior. 1982 Public Health Association of Australia

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-56
Number of pages10
JournalCommunity Health Studies
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1982

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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