Enteroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive-sense single-strand RNA viruses, and are ubiquitously found throughout the world. These viruses usually cause asymptomatic or mild febrile illnesses, but have a propensity to induce severe diseases including type 1 diabetes and pancreatitis, paralysis and neuroinflammatory disease, myocarditis, or hepatitis. This pathogenicity may result from induction of autoimmunity to organ-specific antigens. While enterovirus-triggered autoimmunity can arise from multiple mechanisms including antigenic mimicry and release of sequestered antigens, the recent demonstration of T cells expressing dual T cell receptors arising as a natural consequence of Theiler's virus infection is the first demonstration of this autoimmune mechanism.
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