Automatic recognition and analysis of human faces and facial expressions: a survey

Ashok Samal, Prasana A. Iyengar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

694 Scopus citations


Humans detect and identify faces in a scene with little or no effort. However, building an automated system that accomplishes this task is very difficult. There are several related subproblems: detection of a pattern as a face, identification of the face, analysis of facial expressions, and classification based on physical features of the face. A system that performs these operations will find many applications, e.g. criminal identification, authentication in secure systems, etc. Most of the work to date has been in identification. This paper surveys the past work in solving these problems. The capability of the human visual system with respect to these problems is also discussed. It is meant to serve as a guide for an automated system. Some new approaches to these problems are also briefly discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-77
Number of pages13
JournalPattern Recognition
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1992


  • Classification
  • Face detection
  • Face identification
  • Facial expressions
  • Facial features

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Artificial Intelligence


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