Benign versus malignant hepatic nodules: MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation

Shahid M. Hussain, Pieter E. Zondervan, Jan N.M. Ijzermans, Solko W. Schalm, Rob A. De Man, Gabriel P. Krestin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

156 Scopus citations


According to the currently used nomenclature, there are only two types of hepatocellular nodular lesions: regenerative lesions and dysplastic or neoplastic lesions. Regenerative nodules include monoacinar regenerative nodules, multiacinar regenerative nodules, cirrhotic nodules, segmental or lobar hyperplasia, and focal nodular hyperplasia. Dysplastic or neoplastic nodules include hepatocellular adenoma, dysplastic foci, dysplastic nodules, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many of these types of hepatic nodules play a role in the de novo and stepwise carcinogenesis of HCC, which comprises the following steps: regenerative nodule, low-grade dysplastic nodule, high-grade dysplastic nodule, small HCC, and large HCC. State-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) imaging facilitates detection and characterization in most cases of hepatic nodules. State-of-the-art MR imaging includes single-shot fast spin-echo imaging, in-phase and opposed-phase T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging, T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging with fat saturation, and two-dimensional or three-dimensional dynamic multiphase contrast material-enhanced imaging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1023-1036
Number of pages14
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Liver neoplasms, diagnosis, 761.319, 761.32
  • Liver, MR, 761.121411, 761.121412, 761.12143 liver, nodules, 761.319, 761.32
  • Liver, focal nodular hyperplasia, 761.3198

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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