Beyond efficacy and effectiveness: A multifaceted approach to treatment evaluation

Timothy D. Nelson, Ric G. Steele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


The recent shift toward evidence-based practice in psychology and other areas of health care highlights the need for strong research evidence supporting treatments. However, research evidence has usually been narrowly defined, focusing almost exclusively on treatment outcomes. Although determining the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments is an essential component of treatment evaluation, the authors propose that other areas of evaluation should also be studied as part of a more comprehensive evaluation approach. In this article, the authors integrate recommendations on how treatment evaluation can move beyond studying only outcomes into a model for multifaceted treatment evaluation. Specifically, the authors propose the need to study not only outcomes, but also provider, consumer, and economic considerations. By expanding the focus of treatment evaluation research, the authors hope to offer a model that will guide researchers in developing research evidence that will facilitate the successful widespread implementation of evidence-based approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-397
Number of pages9
JournalProfessional Psychology: Research and Practice
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2006


  • Consumer satisfaction
  • Economic evaluation
  • Evidence-based practice
  • Provider evaluation
  • Treatment evaluation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

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