Bifunctional Amine- and Thiol-Modified Ti3C2TxMXene for Trace Detection of Heavy Metals

Saman Bagheri, Rylan Chilcott, Shengyuan Luo, Alexander Sinitskii

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Surface functionalization of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides, also known as MXenes, is a powerful approach for modification of their physical and chemical properties for new applications. In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of a bifunctional Ti3C2Tx MXene modified with amine and thiol groups through a facile condensation reaction. We successfully employed the resulting NH2/SH-Ti3C2Tx MXene as a solid phase in the ultrasonic-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (d-μ-SPE) method for the analytical determination of heavy metals at trace levels in food and soil samples. The prepared NH2/SH-Ti3C2Tx MXene showed remarkable performance in the ultrasonic-assisted d-μ-SPE method with limits of detection of 0.12 and 2.30 ng mL-1, with linear dynamic ranges of 0.50-90 μg L-1 and 10-120 μg L-1 for cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) ions, respectively. Furthermore, the extraction efficiencies were greater than 97%, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3% for five separate batch experiments in the determination of 5.0 μg L-1 of Cd2+ and Pb2+. This study shows that NH2/SH-Ti3C2Tx can be used as a simple, rapid, reliable, selective, and sensitive material in the d-μ-SPE method for the trace determination of Cd2+ and Pb2+ in soil and agricultural products. This study demonstrates the utility of MXenes for analytical chemistry and suggests that further advances in methods for the functionalization of MXenes can open new applications for these already exciting materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12924-12934
Number of pages11
Issue number42
StatePublished - Oct 25 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Bifunctional Amine- and Thiol-Modified Ti3C2TxMXene for Trace Detection of Heavy Metals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this