Bioinks and Bioprinting Strategies for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering

Mohamadmahdi Samandari, Jacob Quint, Alejandra Rodríguez-delaRosa, Indranil Sinha, Olivier Pourquié, Ali Tamayol

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Skeletal muscles play important roles in critical body functions and their injury or disease can lead to limitation of mobility and loss of independence. Current treatments result in variable functional recovery, while reconstructive surgery, as the gold-standard approach, is limited due to donor shortage, donor-site morbidity, and limited functional recovery. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) has generated enthusiasm as an alternative solution for treatment of injured tissue and serves as a functional disease model. Recently, bioprinting has emerged as a promising tool for recapitulating the complex and highly organized architecture of skeletal muscles at clinically relevant sizes. Here, skeletal muscle physiology, muscle regeneration following injury, and current treatments following muscle loss are discussed, and then bioprinting strategies implemented for SMTE are critically reviewed. Subsequently, recent advancements that have led to improvement of bioprinting strategies to construct large muscle structures, boost myogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and enhance tissue integration are discussed. Bioinks for muscle bioprinting, as an essential part of any bioprinting strategy, are discussed, and their benefits, limitations, and areas to be improved are highlighted. Finally, the directions the field should expand to make bioprinting strategies more translational and overcome the clinical unmet needs are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2105883
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number12
StatePublished - Mar 24 2022


  • bioinks
  • bioprinting
  • muscle injury
  • skeletal muscles
  • tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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